What do you think and do about high-quality development?
The report of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China made a clear judgment that China's economy has shifted from the stage of high-speed growth to the stage of high-quality development. The central economic work conference also pointed out that China's economic development has also entered a new era. The basic feature is that China's economy has changed from the stage of high-speed growth to the stage of high-quality development. Promoting high-quality development is the fundamental requirement for determining development ideas, formulating economic policies and implementing macro-control at present and in the future.
At present, China's economy as a whole continues to show a stable and positive trend, but at the same time, there are some problems, contradictions and even difficulties that can not be ignored in economic operation. Only by deeply understanding the central government's judgment on turning from high-speed growth to high-quality development and the requirements of promoting high-quality development, can we better grasp the basic situation, development trend and policy trend of China's economy as a whole.
Topic 1: how to understand the shift from economy to high-quality development
To promote high-quality development, we must first deeply understand its connotation and significance, so as to gather consensus and form joint forces. The report of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China put forward that China's economy has shifted from the stage of high-speed growth to the stage of high-quality development. This major judgment is rich in connotation. We should focus on three points:
First, emphasize the transformation from high speed to high quality. This not only means that the main task of economic development in the future has shifted from speed to quality, but also means that the main theme or focus of economic work in the future is no longer speed, but quality.
The second is to emphasize the change from growth to development. Growth and development have different meanings. This means that in the future, we should not only pay attention to the growth of quantity, but also pay more attention to the optimization of structure. We should not only pay attention to economic growth, but also pay more attention to the protection of the environment, the improvement of social civilization and the improvement of social governance. That is, we should pay more attention to the all-round development and progress of the five in one of economy, politics, society, culture and ecology.
Third, we should pay attention to the difference between the meaning of "turning" and "turning to". The report of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China used "has turned" instead of "has turned", that is, it has been changing towards high-quality development, but it has not really achieved high-quality development. In other words, the transformation process has begun, but the task of transformation has not been completed. Therefore, the task in the future is to truly transform it into high-quality development, or realize high-quality development through efforts.
From high-speed growth to high-quality development, the first is to overcome the development bottleneck, innovate the development advantages and change the development power, so as to realize the urgent requirement of sustained economic growth. Over the past 40 years of reform and opening up, China's economy has achieved an average annual growth rate of nearly 10%, creating a miracle in human history. The reason why we can achieve such high-speed growth is mainly due to the development stage of our country and the late development advantages determined by it, including the advantages of low cost of production factors such as labor, land and resources, large market demand space, strong bearing capacity of resources and environment, as well as the advantages of large gap between Chinese and foreign technology level and great potential of technology introduction in the early stage of development. At present, some of these advantages have been greatly weakened, and the traditional development model has come to an end. If we can't renew our comparative advantage and rebuild the driving force of development, China's competitiveness will be weakened and the development process will be blocked. The key to innovating comparative advantages and rebuilding the driving force of development is to optimize the economic structure and improve the quality and efficiency of development through innovative development. There is no other way.
Secondly, turning to high-quality development is an urgent requirement to adapt to the changes of the main social contradictions and meet the people's growing needs for a better life. For a long time, we have been quite accustomed to the formulation of the main social contradiction in the past, that is, the contradiction between the growing material and cultural needs of the people and the backward social production. After nearly 40 years of reform, opening up and development, we suddenly found that, on the one hand, China's social production situation has been difficult to simply summarize with the word "backward"; On the other hand, the needs of our people are not only the needs of material culture, but also the needs of good ecological environment and harmonious social environment. Generally speaking, we have completely got rid of the shortage in the past. Now it is not a question of whether there is a shortage, but a question of whether it is good or not. The task ahead is to further improve the quality of development and solve the problem of unbalanced and insufficient development, so as to better meet the people's various needs for a better life.
Third, turning to high-quality development is also an inevitable requirement for further promoting China's modernization process and realizing the strategic goal of modernization. It has been the great dream of the Chinese people since modern times to catch up with the world trend and realize national modernization and the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. According to the actual situation of China's development process, the 19th CPC National Congress set the time for basically realizing the goal of socialist modernization as 2035, 15 years earlier than the previous formulation; The goal of 2050 is to build a prosperous, strong, democratic, civilized, harmonious and beautiful modern socialist power. Comparing the gap between China and countries at the forefront of modernization, the income gap of several times is only a superficial problem. The essential gap is the gap between the per capita productivity level, the technical level and quality level of products and services, and the gap between the ecological environment, living environment and social civilization level. When the level of these aspects is improved, the value of our products and services will be improved, and our income level and living standard will be improved accordingly, which not only meets the people's needs for a better life, but also promotes the process of China's modernization.
Topic 2: four relationships should be handled well to promote high-quality development
The essence of the transition from high-speed growth stage to high-quality development stage is the transformation of development mode, which involves not only the quality improvement of products, services, facilities and environment, but also the guarantee and cooperation of ideas, culture, system and policies. It can be said to be a complex systematic project. In particular, we need to deal with the following important relations.
First, we should properly handle the relationship between the development of new technologies, new products and new business forms and the transformation and upgrading of traditional industries, quality and efficiency improvement. There is no doubt that the development of new technologies, industries and formats is conducive to improving the scientific and technological content and quality of products and services. On the other hand, the quality improvement of traditional industries, especially traditional manufacturing industry, is also an important aspect of the new era to high-quality development, and in a sense, it is a more important aspect. Because the traditional manufacturing industry has a wider scope and larger volume, it has a greater impact on meeting the needs of the people and the overall development of the country. At present, China has become a large manufacturing country, but it is not a strong manufacturing country. In addition to the technical level, the key lies in the low quality and safety standards of China's manufacturing products. There is no sunset industry, only sunset technology, products and enterprises. The transformation and upgrading of traditional industries is not only promising, but also has broad prospects. The core issue is to promote the transformation and upgrading of traditional industries and improve their quality, efficiency and competitiveness through intelligence, refinement, greening, service and branding.
Second, we should properly handle the relationship between the quality improvement of manufacturing industry and the quality improvement of service industry. At present, the added value of China's service industry has accounted for more than 50% of GDP and has become the main body of the economy. However, similar to the manufacturing industry, the main problem of the service industry is that the scale is large, but the quality level needs to be improved. Take the life service industry as an example. In recent years, with the improvement of China's development level, the demand for tourism, leisure, sightseeing, culture and sports is increasing. However, due to the uneven quality of service and safety standards in these fields, problems occur frequently, which not only seriously hit the confidence of domestic consumers and turn a large number of consumer demand abroad, but also have a negative impact on the international image of China's related industries. The situation of producer services is basically similar. The overall quality of financial and insurance services, telecommunications data services, accounting and auditing services is not high, which not only limits their own development, but also restricts the transformation and upgrading of other fields.
Third, we should handle the relationship between the improvement of industrial quality and the improvement of urban and rural construction quality. Urban and rural construction is not only an important part of national modernization, but also an important aspect affecting people's living standards. Since the reform and opening up, China's achievements in urban and rural construction have been recognized and obvious all over the world, but at the same time, there are many shortcomings and areas that need to be improved. For example, in urban construction, the construction of underground comprehensive pipe network is insufficient and the quality is not high. For another example, the ground of the old community is full of cars, the problem of disrepair is prominent, and so on. In the future, we should not only improve the standards and quality of new houses, but also focus on the transformation of these old communities. In addition, we should also pay attention to the quality of rural construction.
Fourth, we should properly handle the relationship between economic and social development and the improvement of environmental quality. A good ecological environment and living environment are not only the basic requirements of a better life, but also an important part of modernization. After years of efforts, China has made some progress in this regard, but the shortcomings of ecological environment and human settlement environment are still prominent, which is still an area requiring efforts in the future.
Topic 3: the key is to accelerate the improvement of the system and policy environment
The central economic work conference proposed that we must accelerate the formation of an index system, policy system, standard system, statistical system, performance evaluation and political performance evaluation to promote high-quality development, create and improve the institutional environment, and promote China's economy to make new progress in achieving high-quality development.
For a long time, the party and government have attached great importance to innovating development ideas, reforming systems and mechanisms and changing development mode according to the changes of economic development stage and development situation. Generally speaking, at present, China has formed a relatively good institutional and policy environment conducive to promoting the transformation of economy to high-quality development, and the transformation of economy to high-quality development also shows a relatively good momentum. From the perspective of further improving the institutional and policy environment, the core point is to make further efforts in dealing with the relationship between the government and the market, give better play to the role of the government and make the market play a decisive role in resource allocation.
First, we should further transform government functions and reduce direct intervention in economic activities, especially in the direction and mode of industrial upgrading, as well as the survival of the fittest and reorganization of industries. Turning to the stage of high-quality development, economic growth depends more on innovation, and technological progress and industrial development direction will face greater uncertainty. Excessive direct government intervention will not only distort market signals and reduce market efficiency, but also cause new losses and accumulate new risks. The role of the government should turn more to functional social support policies, effectively improve the social security system, prevent and resolve financial risks, and create a better social environment for the role of the market.
Second, we should update and improve the environmental, quality and safety standards in time and strictly implement them according to the changes of the actual situation. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, through environmental supervision, environmental law enforcement has been greatly strengthened and remarkable results have been achieved. In the future, it needs to be normalized and legalized through reform. Implementing social regulation and protecting public interests through technical standards such as environment, quality and safety is not only the responsibility of the government, but also an effective way to form a forced mechanism, realize the survival of the fittest and promote industrial upgrading.
Third, we should take further measures to improve the market order and create a favorable market environment for high quality and high price and the survival of the fittest. The fundamental driving force of enterprise innovation and quality improvement lies in high quality and good price and the survival of the fittest. The focus of the role of the government should also be put here. This includes not only implementing stricter market supervision according to law and regulations through relevant administrative institutions, but also giving full play to and making good use of market-oriented and socialized inspection and testing, certification and accreditation and other intermediary service institutions to play their positive role in eliminating information asymmetry and promoting and strengthening market competition.
Fourth, we should further improve the institutional environment for promoting innovation and development. Including intellectual property protection system, scientific research management system to encourage scientific research innovation, option equity incentive system to encourage the transformation of achievements, government procurement system, supervision system to encourage innovation and so on.
Fifth, we should further deepen the reform of key areas, including land system, state-owned enterprise reform, financial reform, cadre system reform, etc. Only by making substantive progress in these reforms can we have a relatively solid foundation for promoting high-quality economic development.